The Musical development of preschool children
Musical development — it is the result of the formation of the child in the process of active music activity. Process m unikalnogo child development is the interaction and interdependence of fundamental factors:
— the nature of the child (inner world);
— the external environment (the outside world);
— the musical activity of the child.
Music education of preschool children includes:
— formed a set of emotional, intellectual, personal and behavioural qualities of the child;
— achieving a certain level of musical culture.
The musical culture of the preschool child includes:
— emotional responsiveness to highly artistic works of musical art;
— musical creative thinking and imagination;
— the experience of creative musical activity;
— musical aesthetic consciousness.
Musical education – musical education and musical training .
Musical education is organized pedagogical process aimed at the formation of the emotional-valuable attitude to the world, other people and himself on the basis of the attribution of moral and aesthetic content of music.
Musical training is a process of transmission and development of knowledge, skills and ways of actions required for successful implementation of musical activity.
Means of musical expression
1. Intonation, conveying emotional state, mood music.
2. The tone – colouring of the sound.
3. Rhythm – the sequence of sounds the same and different durations.
4. Tempo – the speed of the music.
5. Harmony is an ordered relation of sounds in height (major and minor).
6. Dynamics – strength of the music.
7. Register – a series of sounds with similar timbre.
8. Melody – musical idea expressed by means of modal sounds in and using metro rhythmic relations.
9. Harmony is the Association of sounds in harmony.
The content of musical education of children of preschool age:
1) the experience of emotional-moral relations of the child to reality, embodied in music;
2) musical knowledge, abilities and skills;
3) the experience of musical creative activity.
Forms of organization of musical activity in the OED:
Classes — the main form of organization that is teaching children, developing their abilities, education, personal qualities, the formation of the foundations of musical and General culture.
Main task — to arouse children’s interest in music and musical activities.
The development of emotional responsiveness of children to the music throughout the classes should be the center of attention of the teacher.
The content of music lessons in the OED:
The model includes all kinds of musical activity.
In dominant dominates any kind of musical activity (dance and rhythmic activities, singing performance).
On theme choose a theme that unites all kinds of musical activity.
Complex contains different kinds of art, types of art activities (integrated).
Music in everyday life the OED:
— the use of music in everyday life (the listening to the recordings, independent music, exercise, games, morning exercises);
— a different kind of entertainment (themed musical evenings, talks, concerts, theatrical performances, rides),
— holiday matinee.
Methods of musical education of children of preschool age
This means interconnected activities of the teacher and children, aimed at the development of musical abilities and build a Foundation of musical culture preschoolers.
Basic techniques — visual, verbal and practical .
Each of the three methods should be applied with increasing topicality:
from the direct effects (explanatory and illustrative method), by strengthening, exercises, creation of search situations (screening options are problematic to the education (independent search kids activity).
Creation of problem situations in the classroom helps to develop independence preschoolers, creative application of formed skills.
Visual method (visual-auditory and visual-visual)
Visual-auditory — leading method of musical education — performance of musical works by the teacher or the use of TCO.
Options problem using visual-auditory method (creation of the problem situation):
— match «live» sound and recording;
— to compare 2-3 pieces, contrasting between them.
Visual-the visual method is of secondary importance (pictures, drawings, cards).
The problem examples of using this method:
— choose from one of three paintings that corresponds to the character of the music;
— to compare with pattern 2-3 pieces of music and to choose the most close to her figurative content.
Verbal method — conversation, story, explanation, clarification, etc.
The peculiarity of the method in music education: requires a household, and figurative speech. In this case, the teacher should own a bright, competent, expressive, emotional speech.
The method most often not in the nature of reality, but can be problematic if to encourage children to comparisons, self-statements (about the character, the genre, the means of expression).
A practical method — a demonstration of performance techniques in singing, movement, playing instruments.
The method becomes problematical when the teacher shows one embodiment of an action:
— are invited to choose from several movements, which is more suitable for the character of the music;
— is offered to find one or more variants of movements in accordance with music.
The choice of methods depends on the age of the children:
in the Junior school age high proportion of visual and practical methods. Children yet available wide application of verbal methods. Their speech has not yet developed. Therefore, the teacher uses techniques that encourage children to use new words and simultaneously facilitate this task.
In working with the older children all methods and techniques are used with a greater degree of topicality, which stimulates the expression of autonomy and creativity.
All of these techniques contribute to the musical education (i.e. training and education) and the musical development of preschool children.
The choice of methods and determines the stage of working on the musical work:
1 stage — led by visual-auditory and verbal methods.
Stage 2 — the role of practical methods, demonstration of performance techniques (including variable) in combination with visual and verbal.
3 phase — (learned) a practical method acquires a large proportion of variance, independence and creativity.
Dear teachers! If You have any questions on the topic of the article, or there are difficulties in this area, then write in comments . Will certainly help.