Education as a process of personality development
Education — focused and organized process of identity formation through specially organized pedagogical actions in accordance with a specific socio-pedagogical ideal. Education as a pedagogical concept includes 3 crucial characteristics:
1) focus, the presence of some of the sample, socio-cultural landmarks, ideal;
2) compliance progress of education socio-cultural values, as the achievements of the historical development of mankind;
3) the presence of a certain system organized by the educational influences and influences. Drivers Education:
External contradictions of the social and pedagogical – between age requirements to life and the requirements cat society are young, between school and family – political, economic and social contradictions between ideals and reality.
Inner – contradiction of the personality – between teaching conditions and active child, between aspirations and opportunities
Pedagogical regularities of education is an adequate reflection of objective reality in the educational process, having a common sustainable properties at any given circumstances. Highlighted patterns:
1. Child rearing is done only by the activity of the child. The measure of his efforts must match his / her abilities. Any educational task is solved through active action: physical development — through physical exercise, moral — through constant focus on the health of another person, intelligent — through the thinking activity, the solution of intellectual problems.
2. The content of activities of children in the process of education is determined at every moment of the development of the actual needs of the child. Ahead of the current needs, the teacher runs the risk of meeting resistance and passivity of children. If not to take into account age-related changes of the child’s needs, the process of education is difficult and disturbed.
3. Compliance with the ratio of effort of the child and the efforts of the teacher in joint ventures: at the initial stage, the fraction of activity of the teacher exceeds the activity of the child, then the child’s activity increases and at the final stage, the child does everything himself under the supervision of a teacher. Together separated activity helps your child feel like a subject of activity, and this is extremely important for a free creative development of the individual.
Principles of education (General guidelines that require sequences of actions under different conditions and circumstances):
1. Derives from the objectives of education and takes into account the nature of the educational process, – the principle of orientation to value attitude — consistent professional attention of the teacher on the evolving relationship of the pupil to the socio-cultural values (person, nature, society, labour, knowledge) and moral foundations of life — the good, truth, beauty. Condition for the implementation of the principle of orientation to value relations are the philosophical and psychological preparation of the teacher.
2. P the principle of subjectivity — teacher maximally promotes the child’s ability to understand his “I” in relationships with other people and the world, to make sense of their actions. The principle of subjectivity excludes hard order addressed to the children, and involves joint decision making.
3. Stems from attempts to agree on social norms, rules of life and the autonomy of the unique personality of each child. This principle States — acceptance of the child as given, the recognition of the child’s right to exist as such, what it is, respect his life story, which established him at the moment, exactly as recognition of the value of his personality.
Methods of educational influence are concrete ways to influence the minds, feelings and behaviour of pupils for the solution of pedagogical tasks in joint activities, communication of students with a teacher-tutor. For practical work the teacher best suited the following classification of methods of education:
methods belief . using which beliefs, views, concepts nurtured, is the rapid exchange of information (suggestion, narration, dialogue, evidence, appeals, and persuasion);
– methods of exercise (domestication), which organizes activities educate and stimulate positive motives (various kinds of exercises for individual and group activities in the form of orders, requirements, competition, show samples and example, the creation of situations of success);
– methods of evaluation and self-evaluation . with the help of which the evaluation of actions, promotion activity, is help educate in self-regulation of their behavior (criticism, encouragement, comments, punishment, situation of trust, control, self-control, self-criticism).
Forms of education — ways of organizing the educational process, appropriate ways of organizing collective and individual activities of students. In pedagogical literature, a common approach to the classification of the forms of educational work there. The most common is the classification of organizational forms of education depending on how organized students: bulk form (participation of the entire class), kruikovo-group and individual.
In complex educational process can be identified: physical, mental, moral, aesthetic, and vocational education.
The content of physical education include:
– improvement of the human body involves the development of locomotor and musculoskeletal system, nervous system, body proportions, while preserving and promoting human health. From the physical condition depend on the success of learning, professional activity;
– education of students in matters of physical fitness and personal hygiene;
– formation of the physical mechanism of self-education, promotion of self-education will, endurance, perseverance, self-discipline;
– versatile development of specific sports skills and skill;
The content of the mental (intellectual) education:
– the development of intelligence through the development of all cognitive functions of the person: the mental processes of sensation, perception, thinking, imagination, speech;
– mental education of students in the Sciences, business, communication;
– the development of individual intellectual abilities and cognitive abilities of students;
– the development of consciousness and the consciousness of students, their creative potential;
The content of moral education are:
moral education is the formation of consciousness, moral feelings and moral skills behavior;
– ethical education is the formation of good manners, behavior and relationships;
– Patriotic education — the development of a sense of love and responsibility for their country, the formation of readiness to defend the homeland and its people.